Education: “The way of the cross”
It is well known quote: “learning to sail on the water as opposite is not apt to move backward.” Sense “education promotion” normal, learning and learners here though closely linked, but still the two, as in the image comparison: the water and boats.
In the educational thinking of Hegel (1770-1831) and John Dewey (1859-1952), both carried out just one: students identified with learning, as man himself, “take up the cross” of his life, with advantages and disadvantages (“water down” and “water down”), hope and despair, happiness and suffering. Hegel: “education (Bildung) associated with the experience of misfortune”. Dewey: “Education is the act and suffer, rather than to simply expand their knowledge.” An unusual encounter between two new educational philosophies seemed at first sight between the water with fire!
HAPPINESS AND misfortune of “modern man”
“Happiness” of modern man is to be liberated from the “stifling dependence” to “I confess” as a subject of freedom of action as individuals “self-esteem” and “self-confidence.” But, at the same time, his happiness is precarious, by struggling every day, every hour to protect it. Modern people only experience freedom when circumstances force them to do so. Modern man only formed in the struggle to be “recognized” (Hegel), too, “subjectivity” was born from the resistance, not from the playing board. In that sense, in a world of harmony and self-sufficiency, freedom and education surely not only unnecessary but cannot afford it! Or, conversely, a necessary and sufficient condition for formal education is constantly enhanced sense of freedom. By extension, no coincidence that Hegel was the author of the famous statement: “World history is the advancement in the consciousness of freedom.”
However, it is not an avenue immense, flat! As mentioned over, education is not synonymous with happiness (personal), but that, coupled with the experience of misfortune. Nowhere ideas were refined and presented systematically in the immortal work “Phenomenology of Spirit” (1807, the Vietnamese, Knowledge Publishing House, 2006, 2013). Great philosophical work that really was a “novel of education” (Bildungsroman), draw up the panorama and bi girdle of the education process in general. Each step of human perception (called “every form of consciousness”) formed with confidence and cockiness, but then were caught in collapsing the inner contradictions, penetrating his inability While reconciliation between ambition and reality. People themselves have to change the measure, thereby enhancing their awareness to a new step, and then disappointed and so on go through the “way of the cross” until achieving satisfaction. Readers … we have the right not satisfied with the “satisfaction” of Hegel’s final, but hard to not appreciate the analysis and insights of him every step of cognitive, learning – as a bitter joke – always push people to despair, even “desperate”. And it is “desperate” to put people on the road and to have to find new life born and highway. Hegel called the whole process was “historical experience of consciousness”, and disbelief constantly see here comes from the attitude or pessimistic view of the observer, but a “skepticism (be conscious) do themselves.”
In the practical sphere, the introduction of more liberal illustrates this more strongly. One of the most famous chapters of this work (“On-employed slave”) shows that freedom (in the sense of people as slaves and as a self-conscious) to go through several stages. Initially, people do it at the weak, only able to adopt the “stoic” satisfied with their inner freedom, commitment to serve the master unit, but increasingly found that people employed depend in yourself. Phase “skepticism” begins when the suspect served as his own role and especially Vietnamese doubt the superiority of spiritual power of an employer. But people do slave back “unhappy consciousness” when he realized that both the slaves themselves, but also being the owner, but have not found the way out. From mere freedom within, and the freedom of insecurity in doubt to consciousness unfortunate because no “reconciliation” with yourself, the path to freedom “rationality” of the subject Modern road is far from Him! Sennett, as discussed in this chapter, was an exclamation: “For freedom, humanity still suffered much torment, despair and unhappiness again?”. But, in the perspective of educational philosophy, Lars Loevlie, educational philosopher Norway, commented: here, education (Bildung) was conceived as transforming experience of consciousness in the interaction between individuals Human and “culture” (the social environment). The experience requires us to have a critical view of the position as well as its inherent absorb the opposing stance. Indeed, if the interrogation is the rule of reason, then the “rest” where the answer was found only a temporary resting and as an opportunity for further questioning. Education is the process of breaking down and overturning value to treasure the experience, as the voice of a powerful other educators.
DEWEY: EDUCATION INNOVATION IS EXPERIENCE
Before the introduction of John Dewey (“America’s greatest philosopher, Bertrand Russell follow) and educational philosophy,” pragmatic “(which we recommend translated as” operator “) of his, remind a few reviews Dewey’s basic ideas in common with the spirit of the German idealist philosophy.
Education-independent method of conducting-, according to Dewey, is “the changing experience”. Accordingly, the goal of education is not on the outside that is located right in the education process. Dewey illustrated by the art of archery. The objective of the Archer is not pink (integral to the shot), which is how the shot to hit was pink! In other words, the “job” of education rather than education itself is the goal. The process of education, therefore imply the process of experiencing, “said removed the old ones and add new ones make sense”. Education are action and suffer the same as in life, therefore, the core platform of the educational philosophy of action Dewey would be: “the school is society in miniature in the form of the fetus”.